मानक हिंदी वर्तनी

Posted By: Dharmendra Goyal - 6:00 pm


& Comment

इंटरनेट पर मानक हिंदी वर्तनी से संबंधित निम्नलिखित नियम उपलब्ध हैं -

The case-signs in Hindi should always be written as separate words, except in case of pronouns where they should be tagged on to the stems (प्रतिपादिक); e.g. १. राम ने २. स्त्री को ३. उसने ४. मुझको.

1. Where pronouns have two case-signs at a time, the first should be tagged on to the stem while the second should be written separately; e.g. १. उसके लिये २. इसमें से.

2. When the particles ही, तक etc. fall in between a pronoun and its case-sign be written as a separate word; e.g. आप ही के लिये, मुझ तक को.
2. In case of compound verbs, all subsidiaries should be written separately; e.g. १. पड़ा करता है २. आ सकता है.

3. The indeclinables तक, साथ etc. should always be written as separate words; e.g. आपके साथ, यहाँ तक. 

4. The absolutive forms should always be written as single words; e.g. मिलाकर, खा-पीकर, रो-रोकर.

5. In case of co-ordinative compounds, hyphen should be placed in between the constituent words; e.g. राम-लक्ष्मण, शिव-पार्वती-संवाद.

6. Hyphen should be placed before particles like सा, जैसा; e.g. तुम-सा, राम-जैसा, चाकू-से तीखे.

7. In case of dependent determinative compounds, hyphen should be used only to avoid risk of ambiguity; e.g. भू-तत्व. 

8. Where the use of glidal य, व is optional, it may be avoided, i.e., in the words like गए-गये, नई-नयी, हुआ-हुवा, etc. using only the former (vowel) forms. This rule is applicable in all cases viz., verbal, adjectival and undeclinable forms. 

9. ऐ and औ express two distinct sounds in Hindi. First as in words like है, और, etc. and the other in words like गवैया, कौवा, etc. The use of these symbols to express these two distinct sounds should continue. Modifications like गवय्या, कव्वा, etc. are unnecessary.

10. तत्सम words borrowed from Sanskrit should ordinarily be spelt in their original Sanskrit form. But where the use of Hal sign (right slanting stroke \) has already discontinued in Hindi, words like महान (न्‌), विद्वान (न्‌), it need not be revived. 

11. Where the fifth letter of a class of consonants (वर्ग) precedes any of the four remaining letters of the same class, the अनुस्वार should be invariably used instead of the fifth letter; e.g. अंत, गंगा, संपादक. 

12. Use of nasalisation sign (अँ) (चंद्रबिंदु) is sometimes necessary to avoid ambiguity in meaning and to mark out distinction between words like हंस-हँस etc. Except where it is difficult to write or print, चंद्रबिंदु must necessarily be used in poetry to maintain metric sequence. Similarly, in the primers for children where introduction of चंद्रबिंदु is desired, चंद्रबिंदु must invariably be used; e.g. नहीँ, मेँ, मैँ, etc. 

13. Words of Arabo-Persian origin which have been adapted in Hindi vocabulary should continue to be used as such; e.g. जरूर. But where their use in innate form is desired, dots (नुक़्ते) must be used to denote alien origin; e.g. राज़, नाज़.
14. Where use of English words with half-open औ sound is desired, अर्ध-चंद्र symbol should be placed over आ as in ऑनरेरी, डॉक्टर. 

15. If Sanskrit words with विसर्ग have to be used in Hindi in their तत्सम form, the विसर्ग should be placed appropriately as in दुःखानुभूति. But if such words are to be used in their modified (तद्भव) form, विसर्ग can easily be omitted as in दुख-सुख के साथी.

उपर्युक्त नियमों को लेकर हिंदी के विद्वानों और लेखकों में मतैक्य नहीं है। हालाँकि, इस तथ्य से इंकार नहीं किया जा सकता है कि हिंदी वर्तनी की अनेकरूपता के संदर्भ में ये नियम महत्त्वपूर्ण हैं। 

इन नियमों के पालन में अनेक बाधाएँ हैं। हिंदी के शिक्षक इन नियमों को पर्याप्त महत्त्व नहीं देते हैं। मेरे हिंदी शिक्षक ग्यारहवें नियम को गलत मानते थे और मैं भी कुछ वर्षों पहले तक उनकी शिक्षा को "सर्वोपरि" मानते हुए इस नियम का पालन नहीं करता था। आज मैं एक अनुवादक के तौर पर इस नियम का महत्त्व जानता हूँ।

चंद्रबिंदु के प्रयोग को लेकर भी भ्रम की स्थिति बनी हुई है। हिंदी के अनेक अनुवादक इसके प्रयोग को सही मानते हैं। इस विषय पर उनकी राय जानने के लिए निम्नलिखित लिंक पर क्लिक करें:

About Dharmendra Goyal

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